دانستنی‌هایی درباره روی

مجله تفریحی سرگرمی دخترونه

دانستنی‌هایی درباره روی

کمبود روی در بدن می تواند موجب پیامدهای سلامت در بدن شود

 

روی برای فعالیت بیش از ۳۰۰ آنزیم نیاز است که به سوخت و ساز، گوارش، عملکرد عصبی و بسیاری فرآیندهای دیگر کمک می کنند.

روی یک ماده مغذی است که نقش های بسیاری مهمی در بدن انسان ایفا می کند. از آنجایی که بدن به طور طبیعی روی تولید نمی کند، شما باید این ماده معدنی را از غذا یا مکمل ها دریافت کنید.

 

روی به عنوان یک ماده مغذی ضروری در نظر گرفته می شود، به این معنی که بدن نمی تواند آن را تولید یا ذخیره کند.

بر همین اساس، شما باید به طور مداوم روی را از رژیم غذایی خود دریافت کنید.

 

این ماده معدنی برای فرآیندهای متعددی نیاز است که از آن جمله می توان به موارد زیر اشاره کرد:

– بیان ژن

– واکنش های آنزیمی

– عملکرد سیستم ایمنی

– سنتز پروتئین

– سنتز DNA

– بهبود زخم

– رشد و نمو

روی به طور طبیعی در بسیاری از مواد غذایی گیاهی و حیوانی یافت می شود.

 

غذاهایی که حاوی این ماده معدنی نیستند، مانند غلات صبحانه، اسنک ها و آرد آشپزی نیز اغلب با اشکال مصنوعی روی غنی می شوند. همچنین، شما می توانید از مکمل های روی یا مکمل های حاوی چند ماده مغذی که روی نیز در آنها وجود دارد، برای تامین نیاز خود به این ماده مغذی استفاده کنید.

به واسطه نقش خود در عملکرد سیستم ایمنی، روی به اسپری های بینی، قرص ها و دیگر درمان های طبیعی سرماخوردگی نیز اضافه می شود.

 

نقش روی در بدن

روی یک ماده معدنی مهم است که بدن به روش های مختلف از آن استفاده می کند. در حقیقت، روی از نظر فراوانی، پس از آهن، دومین ماده معدنی کم‌مقدار (Trace Mineral) است و در هر سلولی وجود دارد.

روی برای فعالیت بیش از ۳۰۰ آنزیم نیاز است که به سوخت و ساز، گوارش، عملکرد عصبی و بسیاری فرآیندهای دیگر کمک می کنند.

 

افزون بر این، روی برای توسعه و عملکرد سلول های ایمنی ضروری است.

این ماده معدنی در سلامت پوست، سنتز DNA و تولید پروتئین نیز نقش دارد.

رشد و نمو بدن به روی وابسته است زیرا این ماده مغذی در رشد و تقسیم سلولی نقش دارد.

همچنین، روی برای چشایی و بویایی نیز نیاز است زیرا یکی از آنزیم های کلیدی برای چشایی و بویایی مطلوب به این ماده مغذی وابسته است و کمبود روی می تواند کاهش قدرت چشایی و بویایی را به همراه داشته باشد.

 

فواید سلامت روی:

پژوهش ها نشان داده اند که روی فواید سلامت مختلفی را ارائه می کند.

تقویت سیستم ایمنی

روی به حفظ سلامت و قدرت سیستم ایمنی بدن انسان کمک می کند. از آنجایی که این ماده معدنی برای عملکرد سلول های ایمنی و ارسال سیگنال سلولی ضروری است، کمبود آن می تواند به واکنش ضعیف سیستم ایمنی منجر شود.

مکمل های روی سلول های ایمنی خاص را تحریک کرده و استرس اکسیداتیو را کاهش می دهند.

 

به عنوان مثال، نتایج یک بررسی که شامل هفت مطالعه می شد، نشان داد که مصرف ۸۰ تا ۹۱ میلی گرم روی در روز ممکن است مدت زمان سرماخوردگی را تا ۳۳ درصد کاهش دهد.

افزون بر این، مکمل های روی به طور قابل توجهی خطر عفونت ها را کاهش داده و واکنش ایمنی در سالمندان را بهبود می بخشند.

 

تسریع بهبود زخم

روی به طور معمول در بیمارستان ها به عنوان درمانی برای سوختگی ها، برخی زخم های خاص و جراحات پوستی دیگر استفاده می شود.

از آنجایی که این ماده معدنی نقش مهمی در سنتز کلاژن، عملکرد سیستم ایمنی و واکنش التهابی ایفا می کند، عنصری کلیدی برای روند مطلوب بهبودی است.

در حقیقت، پوست انسان مقدار نسبتا زیادی – حدود ۴ درصد – از محتوای روی بدن را در خود نگه می دارد.

در شرایطی که کمبود روی می تواند روند بهبود زخم را کند سازد، مصرف روی می تواند ریکاوری در افراد دارای زخم را تسریع کند.

 

روی به عنوان یک ماده مغذی ضروری در نظر گرفته می شود

 

کاهش خطر برخی بیماری های مرتبط با افزایش سن

روی ممکن است به طور قابل توجهی خطر بیماری های مرتبط با افزایش سن، مانند سینه پهلو، عفونت و انحطاط ماکولای مرتبط با افزایش سن را کاهش دهد.

روی ممکن است استرس اکسیداتیو را کاهش دهد و واکنش ایمنی را از طریق تقویت فعالیت سلول های T و سلول های قاتل طبیعی بهبود ببخشد که به محافظت از بدن شما در برابر عفونت کمک می کند.

طی یک مطالعه، سالمندانی که مکمل روی مصرف کرده بودند، بهبود واکنش واکسن آنفلوانزا، کاهش خطر سینه پهلو و تقویت عملکرد روانی را تجربه کردند.

 

کمک به درمان آکنه

آکنه یک مشکل پوستی شایع است که بنابر ارزیابی های صورت گرفته ۹٫۴ درصد از جمعیت جهان را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد.

آکنه به واسطه مسدود شدن غدد تولیدکننده چربی، فعالیت باکتری ها و التهاب شکل می گیرد.

مطالعات نشان داده اند که درمان های موضعی و خوراکی حاوی روی می توانند با کاهش التهاب، مهار رشد باکتری ها و سرکوب فعالیت غدد چربی به طور موثر آکنه را بهبود ببخشند.

افراد مبتلا به آکنه به طور معمول از سطوح پایین روی در بدن خود برخوردار هستند. از این رو، مصرف مکمل های روی ممکن است به کاهش علائم کمک کند.

 

کاهش التهاب

روی، استرس اکسیداتیو و سطوح برخی پروتئین های التهابی در بدن را کاهش می دهد.

استرس اکسیداتیو به بروز التهاب مزمن، عاملی موثر در طیف گسترده ای از بیماری های مزمن، مانند بیماری قلبی، سرطان و زوال ذهنی، منجر می شود.

طی یک مطالعه، سالمندانی که روزانه ۴۵ میلی گرم روی دریافت کرده بودند، نسبت به گروهی که دارونما مصرف کرده بودند، کاهش بیشتر در نشانگرهای التهابی را نشان دادند.

 

علائم کمبود روی

اگرچه کمبود روی شدید نادر است، این شرایط می تواند در افرادی با جهش های ژنتیکی نادر، نوزادان شیرخوار که بدن مادر آنها به میزان کافی روی ندارد، افرادی که به الکل اعتیاد دارند و افرادی که برخی داروهای سرکوب کننده سیستم ایمنی را مصرف می کنند، رخ دهد.

 

علائم کمبود روی شدید شامل اختلال در رشد، تاخیر در بلوغ جنسی، راش های پوستی، اسهال مزمن، اختلال در بهبود زخم و مسائل رفتاری می شود.

 

موارد خفیف‌تر کمبود روی بیشتر شایع هستند، به ویژه بین کودکانی که در کشورهای در حال توسعه زندگی می کنند و رژیم غذایی آنها به طور معمول با کمبود مواد مغذی مهم مواجه است.

 

بنابر برآوردهای صورت گرفته، حدود ۲ میلیارد نفر در جهان به واسطه دریافت ناکافی روی از رژیم غذایی خود با کمبود این ماده مغذی مواجه هستند.

 

از آنجایی که کمبود روی در عملکرد سیستم ایمنی اختلال ایجاد می کند – احتمال ابتلا به عفونت افزایش می یابد – این شرایط سالانه موجب مرگ بیش از ۴۵۰ هزار کودک زیر ۵ سال می شود.

 

از جمله افرادی که در معرض خطر کمبود روی قرار دارند می توان به موارد زیر اشاره کرد:

افراد مبتلا به بیماری های معدی روده ای، مانند بیماری کرون

وگان ها و گیاهخواران

زنان باردار و مادرانی که به فرزند خود شیر می دهند

نوزدان بزرگ‌تری که تنها با شیر مادر تغذیه می شوند

افراد مبتلا به کم خونی سلول داسی شکل

افراد مبتلا به سوء تغذیه، از جمله آنهایی که به بی اشتهایی (آنورکسی) یا جوع مبتلا هستند

افراد مبتلا به بیماری کلیوی مزمن

افرادی که به الکل اعتیاد دارند

 

علائم کمبود روی خفیف شامل اسهال، افت عملکرد سیستم ایمنی، نازک شدن مو، کاهش اشتها، اختلالات خلقی، خشکی پوست، مشکلات باروری و اختلال در بهبود زخم می شوند.

 

تشخیص کمبود روی به واسطه کنترل شدید بدن بر سطوح روی با استفاده از آزمایش های آزمایشگاهی دشوار است. از این رو، شما ممکن است به کمبود روی مبتلا باشید، حتی اگر آزمایش ها سطوح عادی این ماده معدنی را در بدن نشان دهند.

 

پژشکان عوامل خطرآفرین دیگر مانند تغذیه ضعیف و ژنتیک را در کنار نتایج آزمایش ها مد نظر قرار می دهند تا تشخیص دهند آیا به استفاده از مکمل نیاز است یا خیر.

 

منابع غذایی حاوی روی

بسیاری از مواد غذایی حیوانی و گیاهی سرشار از روی هستند، از این رو، دریافت این ماده مغذی به میزان کافی برای بیشتر مردم دشوار نیست.

 

از جمله مواد غذایی با محتوای روی بالا می توان به موارد زیر اشاره کرد:

– نرم‌تنان صدف‌دار: صدف چروک، خرچنگ، صدف سیاه، لابستر و صدف دو کفه ای

– گوشت: گاو، گوساله و بوفالو

– ماکیان: بوقلمون و مرغ

– ماهی: ساردین، کفشک، سالمون و حلوا

– حبوبات: نخود، عدس، لوبیا سیاه، لوبیا قرمز، غیره

– مغزها و دانه های خوراکی: دانه های کدوتنبل، بادام هندی، شاهدانه، غیره

– محصولات لبنی: شیر، ماست و پنیر

– تخم مرغ

– غلات کامل: جو دوسر، کینوا، برنج قهوه ای، غیره

– برخی سبزی ها: قارچ، کیل، نخود فرنگی، مارچوبه، برگ چغندر

محصولات حیوانی مانند گوشت و نرم‌تنان صدف‌دار حاوی سطوح بالایی از روی به شکلی هستند که بدن به راحتی می تواند جذب کند.

 

به خاطر داشته باشید که روی موجود در منابع گیاهی، مانند حبوبات و غلات کامل به واسطه ترکیب های گیاهی دیگر که جذب را دشوار می کنند، از نظر جذب در بدن کارآمدی کمتری دارد.

 

علائم کمبود روی شدید شامل اختلال در رشد، تاخیر در بلوغ جنسی است

 

مسمومیت و دوز توصیه شده

کمبود روی در بدن می تواند موجب پیامدهای سلامت در بدن شود، این در شرایطی است که مصرف بیش از حد آن نیز می تواند آثار جانبی منفی به همراه داشته باشد.

 

شایع‌ترین دلیل مسمومیت با روی از مصرف بیش از حد مکمل سرچشمه می گیرد که می تواند موجب علائم حاد و مزمن شود.

 

از علائم مسمومیت با روی می توان به موارد زیر اشاره کرد:

– حالت تهوع و استفراغ

– بی اشتهایی

– اسهال

– گرفتگی های شکم

– سردرد

– کاهش عملکرد سیستم ایمنی

– کاهش سطوح کلسترول خوب (HDL)

 

مصرف بیش از حد روی می تواند موجب کمبود مواد مغذی دیگر نیز شود.

به عنوان مثال، دریافت بیش از حد روی می تواند در جذب مس و آهن اختلال ایجاد کند.

 

دوزهای توصیه شده

برای حصول اطمینان از مصرف به اندازه، از مکمل های روی دوز بالا پرهیز کنید، مگر آن که پزشک آنها را تجویز کرده باشد.

مقدار مصرف توصیه شده روزانه روی ۱۱ میلی گرم برای مردان بالغ و ۸ میلی گرم برای زنان بالغ است.

زنان باردار و مادرانی که به فرزند خود شیر می دهند باید به ترتیب ۱۱ و ۱۲ میلی گرم روی در روز مصرف کنند.

 

به جز مواردی که یک شرایط پزشکی در جذب روی اختلال ایجاد کند، شما باید به راحتی مقدار مصرف توصیه شده روزانه برای این ماده معدنی را تنها از طریق رژیم غذایی خود تامین کنید.

سطح بالاتر قابل تحمل روی در روز ۴۰ میلی گرم است. با این وجود، این برای افراد مبتلا به کمبود روی صدق نمی کند زیرا ممکن است به مصرف مکمل های دوز بالا نیاز داشته باشند.

اگر از مکمل روی استفاده می کنید، نمونه های قابل جذب مانند سیترات روی یا گلوکونات روی را انتخاب کنید. از اکسید روی که به سختی جذب می شود، پرهیز کنید.

 

منبع:asriran.com

مجلهتفریحیسرگرمیدخترونه

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