علل و درمان بیماری آکندروپلازی

مجله تفریحی سرگرمی دخترونه

علل و درمان بیماری آکندروپلازی

هیدروسفالی, بیماری کوتولگی

تشخیص قبل از هفته ۲۰ بارداری صرفاً با آزمایش مولکولی DNA جنین امکان‌پذیر است

آکندروپلازی گونه‌ای اختلال ژنتیکی است و به عنوان یکی از علل اصلی بیماری کوتولگی به‌شمار می‌آید. در این اختلال، پروتئین FGFR-3 یا گیرنده اف‌جی‌اف (FGF)، که در غضروف استخوان‌ها نقش دارد، جهش یافته است. این بیماری از هر ۴۰-۱۵ هزار تولد در یکی دیده می شود.

بیماری آکندروپلازیا (Achondroplasia) نوعی کوتاه قدی مادرزادی است که مشخصه آن کوتاه بودن طول اندام ها است. مشکل اصلی در این بیماران تبدیل غضروف به استخوان در صفحات رشد بخصوص در استخوان های بلند اندام ها است.

 

قد متوسط مرد مبتلا به آکندروپلازی حدود ۱۳۰ سانتیمتر و زن مبتلا حدود ۱۲۴ سانتیمتر است. تنه این بیماران معمولا مشکل خاصی نداشته و کوتاهی بیشتر در اندام های آنها است.

 

البته باید این نکته را هم در نظر گرفت که حداقل ۸۰ درصد این بیماری یا به علت جهش جدید و بدون هیچ سابقه فامیلی در فرد مبتلا دیده می ­شوند و یا ممکن است در اثر موزائیسم سلول های جنسی یا گنادی در یکی از والدین رخ ­دهند یعنی احتمال دارد دو فرزند مبتلا یا بیش از آن از والدین طبیعی زاده شوند.

 

در موارد تک گیر سن بالای پدر ریسک ابتلا بیماری با منشا جهش جدید را افزایش می ­دهد. فراوانی این بیماری بین ۰٫۵ تا ۱٫۵ در هر ۱۰۰۰۰ تولد می ­باشد. نرخ جهش در این بیماری بسیار بالا است و در بین ۵-۱۰×۱٫۷۲ و ۵-۱۰×۵٫۵۷ در هر گامت و در هر نسل تخمین زده شده است.

 

مشخصات عمده بیمار مبتلا به آکندروپلازی عبارتند از :  

 

هیدروسفالی, بیماری کوتولگی

آکندروپلازی گونه‌ای اختلال ژنتیکی است و یکی از علل اصلی بیماری کوتولگی به‌شمار می‌آید

 

 قد کوتاه همراه با اندام های فوقانی و تحتانی کوتاه بخصوص کوتاهی در بازو و ران

محدودیت حرکت در آرنج و اشکال در باز کردن کامل آن

سر بزرگ با یک پیشانی برجسته

  انگشتان این افراد کوتاه بوده و انگشتان وسط و انگشتری از هم دور هستند

هوش این افراد طبیعی است

  آهسته شدن یا قطع تنفس برای یک مدت کوتاه

چاقی

عفونت های مکرر گوش

  افزایش تقعر در کمر ( لوردوز) و تحدب در پشت (کیفوز)

  تنگی کانال نخاعی

پاهای پرانتزی

  کمردرد در سن بلوغ

  کاهش قدرت عضلات

کلاب فوت

  هیدروسفالی (تجمع مایع در مغز)

 

علت بیماری آکندروپلازی:

اختلال تکوینی در آکندروپلازیا که شایع ترین علت کوتولگی در انسان است، نوعی اختلال اتوزومی غالب ناشی از جهش های اختصاصی در FGFR3  در ناحیه ۴p16 می ­باشد.

 

%۹۸ این بیماران دارای یک جایگزینی انتقالی G به A و حدود ۱% جایگزینی متقاطع G به C در نوکلئوتید ۱۱۳۸ می ­باشد. این دو موتاسیون موجب قرارگیری اسیدآمینه آرژنین به جای اسید آمینه گلیسین در کدون ۳۸۰ در دومین ترانسمبرانس پروتئین FGFR3 می ­گردد.

 

در باقی بیماران دو جهش دیگر در این ژن یعنی G375C و G346A مسئول وقوع این بیماری می ­باشند. این بیماری در افراد بیمار به صورت هتروزیگوت می ­باشند زیرا که ژنوتیپ هموزیگوت علائم بیماری با شدت بالاتری بروز می ­یابد و کشنده می ­باشند.

 

تشخیص پیش از تولد آکندروپلازی

 

هیدروسفالی, بیماری کوتولگی

اختلال تکوینی در آکندروپلازیا که شایع ترین علت کوتولگی در انسان است

 

ο قبل از هفته ۲۰ بارداری صرفاً با آزمایش مولکولی DNA جنین امکان‌پذیر است.

 

ο هرچند در اواخر بارداری با تجزیه و تحلیل عکس اسکلت جنین می‌توان تشخیص داد.

 

ο خصوصیات آکندروپلازی را نمی‌توان با سونوگرافی پیش از هفته ۲۴ بارداری شناسایی کرد.

 

خطر توارث آکندروپلازی
در والدین طبیعی دارای فرزندی مبتلا، خطر ابتلای فرزندان بعدی آنها بسیار کم است.

 

در مواردی که یکی از زوجین مبتلا به آکندروپلازی است، خطر عود در هر فرزند ۵۰ درصد است.

 

•  25درصد احتمال آکندروپلازی هموزیگوت کشنده و ۲۵ درصد دارای قامت طبیعی است.

  

هیدروسفالی, بیماری کوتولگی

بیماری آکندروپلازی

 

اقدامات درمانی آکندروپلازی  

در شیرخوارگی و اوایل کودکی بیماران باید از نظر عفونت گوش‌میانی مزمن،  هیدروسفالی، فشردگی ساقه مغز و آپنه انسدادی، کنترل و درمان شوند.


درمان تنگی مجرای نخاعی نیاز به رفع فشار و پایدار کردن ستون فقرات به روش جراحی دارد.

درمان با هورمون رشد و دراز کردن اندام تحتانی از راه جراحی  به عنوان درمان‌هایی برای کوتاهی قد مطرح شده‌اند.

علاوه بر درمان مشکلات طبی، بیماران به علت جنبه‌های روانی ظاهر و قد کوتاه و معلولیت خود، اغلب نیاز به کمک برای تطابق اجتماعی دارند.

 

گردآوری: بخش سلامت دخترونه 

منابع:iranorthoped.ir

 forum.special.ir

مجلهتفریحیسرگرمیدخترونه

۱۵۹ دیدگاه
  1. generic viagra prices 5 ماه قبل

    I am really pleased to read this weblog posts which carries plenty of valuable information, thanks for providing these data.

  2. cialis 20mg cig 3 ماه قبل

    effectiveness of cialis for daily use

  3. AlvinFenlY 2 ماه قبل
  4. KiaAgome 2 ماه قبل
  5. suba suba 2 ماه قبل

    JiNp6u Wow! Thank you! I permanently needed to write on my site something like that. Can I take a part of your post to my website?

  6. GJV 2 ماه قبل

    A round of applause for your article.Really looking forward to read more. Much obliged.

  7. 더킹카지노 2 ماه قبل

    A fascinating discussion is definitely worth comment. I believe that you need to write more on this subject, it may not be a taboo matter but generally people do not speak about these subjects. To the next! Many thanks!! http://jim7blog.wallinside.com/

  8. melatonina comprar 2 ماه قبل

    I really like and appreciate your article post.Thanks Again. Much obliged.

  9. This is really interesting, You are a very skilled blogger. I have joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. Also, I have shared your website in my social networks!

  10. to learn more 2 ماه قبل

    Muchos Gracias for your post.Really thank you! Awesome.

  11. for more details 2 ماه قبل

    It absolutely not agree with the previous message

  12. Power Efficiency Guide PDF 2 ماه قبل

    Lea margot horoscope tarot de marseille gratuit divinatoire

  13. JDM 2 ماه قبل

    Your great competence and kindness in maneuvering almost everything was essential. I usually do not know what I would ave done if I had not encountered such a subject like

  14. It’s perfect time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I want to suggest you some interesting things or tips. Maybe you can write next articles referring to this article. I wish to read more things about it! upcoming sarkari naukri 2019 https://www.slideshare.net/helios7blog/a-route-masters-best-friend-is-the-computer-126748991

  15. website 2 ماه قبل

    You can certainly see your skills within the work you write. The world hopes for more passionate writers such as you who are not afraid to mention how they believe. At all times go after your heart.

  16. smm panel 2 ماه قبل

    There most be a solution for this problem, some people think there will be now solutions, but i think there wil be one.

  17. Click to read 2 ماه قبل

    SACS LANCEL ??????30????????????????5??????????????? | ????????

  18. Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to say that I ave really enjoyed browsing your blog posts. After all I all be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon!

  19. 389poker.online 2 ماه قبل

    Some times its a pain in the ass to read what website owners wrote but this internet site is real user pleasant!.

  20. website link 2 ماه قبل

    Thankyou for all your efforts that you have put in this. very interesting information.

  21. why not try this out 2 ماه قبل

    Your style is very unique in comparison to other people I’ve read stuff from. I appreciate you for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I’ll just book mark this site. click here http://www.helios7.com/best-alternatives-powerpoint/

  22. Thanks for the blog post.Thanks Again. Want more.

  23. I think other web site proprietors should take this website as an model, very clean and fantastic user friendly style and design, as well as the content. You are an expert in this topic!

  24. visit website 2 ماه قبل

    Very informative blog article.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

  25. KiaAgome 2 ماه قبل
  26. https://voiplaunch.com/ 1 ماه قبل

    please take a look at the web pages we comply with, such as this one, as it represents our picks from the web

  27. This content 1 ماه قبل

    I really like reading an article that will make men and women think. Also, many thanks for allowing for me to comment! https://penzu.com/public/76ab0b77

  28. to learn more 1 ماه قبل

    Thanks for the blog article.Much thanks again. Really Cool.

  29. Penn 1 ماه قبل

    Looking forward to reading more. Great blog post.Really thank you! Will read on

  30. hotel zetta san francisco 1 ماه قبل

    Some genuinely superb blog posts on this internet site , appreciate it for contribution.

  31. for more info 1 ماه قبل

    You have made some decent points there. I checked on the net for additional information about the issue and found most individuals will go along with your views on this web site.

  32. It as nearly impossible to find educated people on this subject, but you seem like you know what you are talking about! Thanks

  33. https://puregames.io 1 ماه قبل

    Some times its a pain in the ass to read what people wrote but this internet site is real user friendly !.

  34. Woking taxi 1 ماه قبل

    There is definately a lot to find out about this subject. I like all of the points you made.

  35. Kallos 1 ماه قبل

    Muchos Gracias for your blog post.Thanks Again. Want more.

  36. pop over to these guys 1 ماه قبل

    https://penzu.com/public/8b211afd loved reading your website.

  37. for more information 1 ماه قبل

    up losing many months of hard work due to no data backup.

  38. 15 Minute Manifestation 1 ماه قبل

    Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest

  39. www 1 ماه قبل

    http://vwebtuilt.weebly.com/blog1/yes-casino-easy-betting-returns Sure this is very open with a clear clarification of the challenges. It was really informative. Your website is very helpful. Thanks for sharing!

  40. mortgage rates 1 ماه قبل
  41. to get more information 1 ماه قبل

    Merely wanna input that you ave got a very great web page, I enjoy the style and style it seriously stands out.

  42. The Lost Ways 1 ماه قبل

    you ?аА аБТ–event it, аА аЂаny plugin or

  43. Rebbecca 1 ماه قبل

    Looking around I like to browse in various places on the online world, regularly I will go to Stumble Upon and read and check stuff out

  44. watch movies online 1 ماه قبل

    I was able to find good info from your articles. http://EuRC5HMd7.wallinside.com/

  45. Miki 1 ماه قبل

    time to be happy. I ave learn this post and if I could I wish to recommend you

  46. tractors 1 ماه قبل

    Thanks so much for the article.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

  47. to learn more 1 ماه قبل

    News info I was reading the news and I saw this really cool information

  48. to learn more 1 ماه قبل

    I value the blog.Really thank you! Fantastic.

  49. Toronto Party Bus 1 ماه قبل

    If you know of any please share. Thanks!

  50. read article 1 ماه قبل

    Great blog you’ve got here.. It’s difficult to find quality writing like yours nowadays. I truly appreciate people like you! Take care!! https://penzu.com/p/2a7e9124

  51. spotify account generator 1 ماه قبل

    Its like you read my thoughts! You seem to kno? so

  52. barcelona strip bar 1 ماه قبل

    your dаА аЂа•ntist to go about the trouble аА аБТ–ight away

  53. roupas para loja de dez 1 ماه قبل

    Thanks so much for the article.Thanks Again. Really Great.

  54. hampton bay 1 ماه قبل

    Integer vehicula pulvinar risus, quis sollicitudin nisl gravida ut

  55. junk removala 1 ماه قبل

    This blog is extremely good. How was it made ?

  56. yggtorrent 1 ماه قبل

    Than?s for your maаА аБТ–vаА аЂа•lаА аБТ•us posting!

  57. youtube mp3 1 ماه قبل

    Wonderful put up, definitely regret not heading on the USO style dinner. Keep up the great perform!

  58. online craft store 1 ماه قبل

    Very good article.Much thanks again. Want more.

  59. I loved as much as you’ll receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored subject matter stylish. nonetheless, you command get bought an shakiness over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come further formerly again as exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this hike. http://www.governmentjobsvacancies.com/latest-recruitments/hssc/

  60. read more 4 هفته قبل

    Thanks for the blog article.Much thanks again. Fantastic.

  61. drug rehab 4 هفته قبل

    My brother recommended I might like this blog. He was entirely right. This post truly made my day. You cann at imagine simply how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

  62. Purtier 4 هفته قبل

    wow, awesome blog article.Thanks Again. Fantastic.

  63. pre ipo investing 4 هفته قبل

    There as certainly a lot to know about this subject. I like all the points you ave made.

  64. psu jobs 4 هفته قبل

    There is definately a great deal to learn about this issue. I love all of the points you’ve made. http://employment-newspaper.com/psu-jobs/

  65. TANMATRA 4 هفته قبل

    Very good article.Thanks Again.

  66. farfetch coupons 4 هفته قبل

    I really liked your blog post. Fantastic.

  67. soniachna dolyna 4 هفته قبل

    You made some really good points there. I looked on the net for more info about the issue and found most individuals will go along with your views on this website.

  68. thao duoc quy 3 هفته قبل

    This is one awesome article.Really looking forward to read more. Much obliged.

  69. Computer base test 3 هفته قبل

    It as nearly impossible to find well-informed people for this subject, but you sound like you know what you are talking about! Thanks

  70. This is one awesome blog.Really thank you! Really Cool.

  71. for more information 3 هفته قبل

    pretty practical material, overall I consider this is really worth a bookmark, thanks

  72. pussy cum 3 هفته قبل

    Im grateful for the post.Really thank you! Fantastic.

  73. Tattoo Artists 3 هفته قبل

    Some truly nice and utilitarian info on this site, too I believe the pattern has got excellent features.

  74. daftar sbobet 3 هفته قبل

    I wanted to thank you for this great article, I definitely loved each and every little bit of it. I have bookmarked your web site to look at the newest stuff you post.

  75. visit website 3 هفته قبل

    Wow! This can be one particular of the most beneficial blogs We ave ever arrive across on this subject. Basically Great. I am also an expert in this topic therefore I can understand your hard work.

  76. Sweet blog! I found it while surfing around on Yahoo News. Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News? I ave been trying for a while but I never seem to get there! Many thanks

  77. Thank you for your blog post.Really looking forward to read more. Really Great.

  78. latest apk for pc download 3 هفته قبل

    singles dating sites Hey there, You ave done an incredible job. I will certainly digg it and personally recommend to my friends. I am sure they will be benefited from this web site.

  79. play 3 هفته قبل

    I went over this site and I think you have a lot of fantastic information, bookmarked (:.

  80. Supermodel Elena 3 هفته قبل

    like to read it afterward my links will too.

  81. KimAgome 3 هفته قبل
  82. Lilia 3 هفته قبل

    Thanks so much for the article.Much thanks again. Awesome.

  83. Liana 3 هفته قبل

    The Silent Shard This could most likely be fairly beneficial for many of your respective job opportunities I intend to never only with my website but

  84. port renfrew cabin 3 هفته قبل

    Looking forward to reading more. Great article.Much thanks again. Awesome.

  85. seo tips 3 هفته قبل

    Woh I like your blog posts, saved to favorites !.

  86. healthy 3 هفته قبل

    Thanks for another great article. Where else may anybody get that kind of info in such a perfect means of writing? I have a presentation subsequent week, and I am on the look for such information.

  87. to learn more 3 هفته قبل

    You made some respectable points there. I regarded on the web for the issue and located most people will go together with with your website.

  88. Health NEWS Magazine 3 هفته قبل

    You ave got an incredibly great layout for your blog i want it to use on my web-site as well

  89. Digital marketing 3 هفته قبل

    Thank you ever so for you article.Really looking forward to read more. Want more.

  90. aliexpress coupon code 3 هفته قبل

    Right now it sounds like Expression Engine is the top blogging platform out there right now. (from what I ave read) Is that what you are using on your blog?

  91. play slots 3 هفته قبل

    Great, thanks for sharing this blog article.

  92. Louvre 3 هفته قبل

    this paragraph, in my view its actually amazing in support of me.

  93. Hens Parties 2 هفته قبل

    This dual-Air Jordan XI Low Bred is expected to make a

  94. mindhunter9.co.kr 2 هفته قبل

    Excellent post! We will be linking to this great post on our site. Keep up the good writing.

  95. aliexpress coupons 2 هفته قبل

    This is one awesome article.Thanks Again. Awesome.

  96. insurance quotes online 2 هفته قبل

    There as certainly a great deal to find out about this topic. I like all the points you have made.

  97. cheap insurance quotes online 2 هفته قبل

    out there that I am completely confused.. Any recommendations?

  98. fat loss workout 2 هفته قبل

    Whoa! This blog looks just like my old one! It as on a totally different subject but

  99. Como tejer 2 هفته قبل

    Well I truly enjoyed studying it. This article offered by you is very helpful for correct planning.

  100. Arctic Circle Trail Guide 2 هفته قبل

    pretty helpful stuff, overall I imagine this is really worth a bookmark, thanks

  101. getting car insurance 2 هفته قبل

    reader amused. Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well,

  102. worth 2 هفته قبل

    I really liked your blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Really Great.

  103. to learn more 2 هفته قبل

    This is very interesting, You are a very skilled blogger. I ave joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. Also, I have shared your website in my social networks!

  104. for more information 2 هفته قبل

    It is in reality a nice and helpful piece of information. I am satisfied that you shared this helpful info with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

  105. more details 2 هفته قبل

    pretty beneficial stuff, overall I consider this is worthy of a bookmark, thanks

  106. car insurance prices 2 هفته قبل

    I simply could not go away your website before suggesting that I actually loved the usual information a person supply for your guests? Is gonna be back incessantly to check up on new posts

  107. Cineblog01 2 هفته قبل

    Really informative post.Thanks Again. Want more.

  108. EvaAgome 2 هفته قبل
  109. You could certainly see your expertise in the work you write. The world hopes for more passionate writers like you who aren at afraid to say how they believe. Always go after your heart.

  110. hampton bay 2 هفته قبل

    Pretty! This was a really wonderful post. Thank you for supplying this information.

  111. visit website 2 هفته قبل

    I really liked your blog post.Really thank you! Great.

  112. Waec 2 هفته قبل

    Thanks-a-mundo for the blog post.Really looking forward to read more. Want more.

  113. ark ps4 server 2 هفته قبل

    This very blog is really educating as well as factual. I have found a lot of useful stuff out of it. I ad love to come back again soon. Thanks!

  114. uscis case status check 2 هفته قبل

    You have brought up a very fantastic details , thankyou for the post.

  115. http://tunasbola.org 2 هفته قبل

    So content to possess located this publish.. Seriously beneficial perspective, many thanks for giving.. Great feelings you have here.. Extremely good perception, many thanks for posting..

  116. click here 1 هفته قبل

    I surprised with the research you made to create this actual publish amazing.

  117. Make money with Cpa 1 هفته قبل

    msn. That is an extremely neatly written article. I will make sure to bookmark it and return to learn more of your useful info.

  118. Online Gifts 1 هفته قبل

    Looking around While I was surfing yesterday I saw a excellent article about

  119. EvaAgome 1 هفته قبل
  120. to learn more 1 هفته قبل

    Very good article post.Really looking forward to read more.

  121. www.deervalleystorage.com 1 هفته قبل

    You ave made some good points there. I looked on the net to find out more about the issue and found most individuals will go along with your views on this site.

  122. handjob 1 هفته قبل

    moved to start my own blog (well, almostHaHa!) Excellent job.

  123. The Moss Team 1 هفته قبل

    some pics to drive the message home a little bit, but instead of that, this is great blog.

  124. to learn more 1 هفته قبل

    Whoa! This blog looks just like my old one! It as on a totally different topic but it has pretty much the same layout and design. Excellent choice of colors!

  125. Jordan 11 win like 82 on feet 1 هفته قبل

    You need to take part in a contest for one of the highest quality blogs online. I most certainly will highly recommend this site!

  126. Im no professional, but I believe you just crafted the best point. You clearly comprehend what youre talking about, and I can actually get behind that. Thanks for staying so upfront and so sincere.

  127. It as genuinely very complicated in this active life to listen news on TV, so I simply use world wide web for that purpose, and obtain the latest news.

  128. daftar sbobet 5 روز قبل

    This awesome blog is without a doubt interesting as well as diverting. I have discovered helluva handy tips out of it. I ad love to visit it again and again. Thanks a bunch!

  129. http://112.140.187.117/ 5 روز قبل

    This genuinely answered my predicament, thank you!

  130. click here 4 روز قبل

    Looking forward to reading more. Great blog.Thanks Again. Keep writing.

  131. junk removal 4 روز قبل

    Major thankies for the article.Much thanks again. Want more.

  132. Mavis 4 روز قبل

    Thanks so much for the blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Cool.

  133. trademark objection reply 4 روز قبل

    Nice blog here! Also your site lots up fast! What web host are you the use of? Can I am getting your associate link in your host? I want my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  134. Desert Safari Deals 4 روز قبل

    You have made some decent points there. I checked on the web for more information about the issue and found most individuals will go along with your views on this web site.

  135. Como aumentar las ventas 4 روز قبل

    I truly appreciate this article post.Really looking forward to read more. Fantastic.

  136. cris urzua 3 روز قبل

    I value the article.Really thank you! Cool.

  137. psicologia del consumidor 3 روز قبل

    Keep up the great work , I read few posts on this web site and I conceive that your web blog is really interesting and contains bands of superb information.

  138. psicologia del consumidor 3 روز قبل

    There is noticeably a bundle to know about this. I assume you made various nice points in features also.

  139. xxx video 3 روز قبل

    I visited a lot of website but I conceive this one has something special in it in it

  140. driving directions 3 روز قبل

    I really like and appreciate your post. Awesome.

  141. https://creamy-teen.com/ 3 روز قبل

    Very informative article.Really looking forward to read more.

  142. hotels 3 روز قبل

    Usually I don at read post on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very forced me to try and do it! Your writing style has been surprised me. Thanks, quite nice article.

  143. Some truly quality posts on this site, bookmarked.

  144. harry-potter-music-box 2 روز قبل

    I think this is a real great blog article.Really looking forward to read more.

  145. This information is worth everyone as attention. Where can I find out more?

  146. ilan tzorya 2 روز قبل

    This content announced was alive extraordinarily informative after that valuable. People individuals are fixing a great post. Prevent go away.

  147. I really liked your blog article.Thanks Again. Keep writing.

  148. majestic-punta cana 1 روز قبل

    pretty beneficial stuff, overall I think this is worthy of a bookmark, thanks

  149. just go to 1 روز قبل

    to be using? I am having some small security problems with

  150. shared hosting 8 ساعت قبل

    Wonderful article! We are linking to this great

پاسخ

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *

*

CONTACT US

We're not around right now. But you can send us an email and we'll get back to you, asap.

در حال ارسال

©2019 KLEO Template a premium and multipurpose theme from Seventh Queen

ورود با حساب های شما

اطلاعات حساب خود را فراموش کرده اید